Denna sida på svenska This page in English


METRO is a Swedish research project about infrastructure protection. The Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety is involved in the second work package of the project, which focuses on evacuation of people in these types of facilities. The overall focus of the project is on the protection of underground rail mass transport systems, e.g., tunnels and subway stations, and both fire and explosion hazards are included. The total budget of METRO is 14.2 million SEK (ca € 1.5 million), and the project runs over a period of three years (2009 to 2012). 

METRO is a multidisciplinary project where researchers from different disciplines cooperate with practitioners with the common goal to make underground rail mass transport systems safer in the future. The following nine partners participate in METRO: Mälardalen University, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Lund University, Swedish Defence Agency (FOI), Gävle University, Swedish National Defence College, Swedish Fortifications Agency, Greater Stockholm FIre Brigade and Stockholm Public Transport (SL).

The work in METRO is divided into seven work packages (WPs) which address different aspects of the studied topic. The Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety at Lund University is responsible for the second work package about evacuation. The purpose of WP2 is to investigate how train passengers can be safely evacuated in case of an emergency in underground mass transportation systems, e.g., underground railway tunnels, trains, and stations. Particular focus is placed on examining way-finding behaviour, and different way-finding systems will be tested in the study. It will also be investigated how various groups of passengers, such as senior citizens and people with disabilities, physically manage to evacuate. The development of a computer software tool for simulating evacuation from underground facilities will be initiated in the second work package.

More information about the METRO project is available on the official homepage (

Contact persons

Daniel Nilsson
+46 46 222 95 93


Fridolf, K., Nilsson, D., & Frantzich, H. (2014). The Flow Rate of People during Train Evacuation in Rail Tunnels: Effects of Different Train Exit Configurations. Safety Science, 62(C), 515-529. doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2013.10.008

Fridolf, K, & Frantzich, H. (2014). Evacuation in Underground Rail Transportation Systems: A Summary of the Findings of the METRO Project. Paper presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Marseille, France.

Fridolf, K., Ronchi, E., Nilsson, D., & Frantzich, H. (2013). Movement speed and exit choice in smoke-filled rail tunnels. Fire Safety Journal. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.03.007.

Fridolf, K. (2013). Evacuation of a Smoke Filled Tunnel: Human Behaviour, Movement Speed and Exit Choice. Lund: Lund University.

Fridolf, K., & Nilsson, D. (2012). WP2 - evacuation. In The METRO project: Final report (pp. 37-44). Mälardalen: Mälardalen University Press.

Fridolf, K., Nilsson, D., & Frantzich, H. (2012). Train evacuation inside a tunnel: An interview study with senior citizens and people with disabilities. In Proceedings of the fifth international symposium on human behaviour in fire. Interscience Communications.

Nilsson, D., Fridolf, K., & Frantzich, H. (2012). Design of evacuation systems in underground transportation systems. In Proceedings of the 5th human behaviour in fires international symposium. Cambridge, UK: Interscience Communications Ltd.

Fridolf, K., Nilsson, D., & Frantzich, H. (2012). Taking advantage of theories and models on human behaviour in the fire safety design of underground transportation systems. In Fifth international symposium on tunnel safety and security. New York City, USA.

Fridolf, & Nilsson. (2012). A questionnaire study about fire safety in underground rail transportation systems. Lund: Lund University. Report 3164.

Fridolf, K., Nilsson, D., & Frantzich, H. (2011). Fire evacuation in underground transportation systems: A review of accidents and empirical research. Fire Technology, 49(2), 451-475. doi:10.1007/s10694-011-0217-x.

Grindrod, Welch, & Fridolf, K. (2011). A priori modelling of an underground evacuation. In Advanced research workshop: Evacuation and human behaviour in emergency situations. Santander, Spain.

Nilsson, D., Fridolf, K. (2010). Utrymning av tunnelbanor: Faktorer att beakta vid utformning av brandskyddet. Bygg & teknik, 6, 45-48.

Fridolf, K. (2010). Fire evacuation in underground transportation systems: a review of accidents and empirical research. Lund: Lund University. Report 3151.